This series was labeled AP-1 through about AP, pressed on grainless red vinyl. Today AP-1 through AP-5 are very scarce. By very tightly packing the fine groove, a playing time of 17 minutes per side was achieved. Reel-to-reel magnetic tape recorders posed a new challenge to the LP in the s, but the higher cost of pre-recorded tapes was one of several factors that confined tape to a niche market.
Cartridge and cassette tapes were more convenient and less expensive than reel-to-reel tapes, and they became popular for use in automobiles beginning in the mids.
However, the LP was not seriously challenged as the primary medium for listening to recorded music at home until the s, when the audio quality of the cassette was greatly improved by better tape formulations and noise-reduction systems.
Bycassettes were outselling LPs in the US. The Compact Disc CD was introduced in It offered a recording that was, theoretically, completely noiseless and not audibly degraded by repeated playing or slight scuffs and scratches. At first, the much higher prices of CDs and CD players limited their target market to affluent early adopters and audiophiles ; but prices came down, and by CDs outsold LPs. The CD became the top-selling format, over cassettes, in Along with phonograph records in other formats, some of which were made of other materials, LPs are now widely referred to simply as "vinyl".
Since the late s there has been a vinyl revival. Soundtracks — played on records synchronized to movie projectors in theatres — could not fit onto the mere five minutes per side that 78s offered. When initially introduced, inch LPs played for a maximum of about 23 minutes per side, inchers for around It wasn't until "microgroove" was developed by Columbia Records in that Long Players LPs reached their maximum playtime, which has continued to modern times.
Economics and tastes initially determined which kind of music was available on each format. Recording company executives believed upscale classical music fans would be eager to hear a Beethoven symphony or a Mozart concerto without having to flip over multiple, four-minute-per-side 78s, and that pop music fans, who were used to listening to one song at a time, would find the shorter time of the inch LP sufficient.
As a result, the inch format was reserved solely for higher-priced classical recordings and Broadway shows. Popular music continued to appear only on inch records. Their beliefs were wrong. By the mids, the inch LP, like its similarly sized 78 rpm cousin, would lose the format war and be discontinued. Ten-inch records briefly reappeared as mini-LPs in the late s and early s in the United States and Australia as a marketing alternative. InColumbia Records introduced "extended-play" LPs that played for as long as 52 minutes, or 26 minutes per side.
The minute playing time remained rare, however, because of mastering limitations, and most LPs continued to be issued with a to minute playing time. A small number of albums exceeded the minute limit. These records had to be cut with much narrower spacing between the grooves, which allowed for a smaller dynamic range on the records, and meant that playing the record with a worn needle could damage the record.
It also resulted in a much quieter sound, Album). Spoken word and comedy albums require a smaller dynamic range compared to musical records. Therefore, they can be cut with narrower spaces between the grooves. Turntables called record changers could play records stacked vertically on a spindle. This arrangement encouraged the production of multiple-record sets in automatic sequence. A two-record set had Side 1 and Side 4 on one record, and Side 2 and Side 3 on the other, so the first two sides could play in a changer without the listener's intervention.
Then the stack was flipped over. Larger boxed sets used appropriate automatic sequencing 1—8, 2—7, 3—6, 4—5 to allow continuous playback, but this created difficulties when searching LP an individual track.
Vinyl records are vulnerable to dust, heat warping, scuffs, and scratches. Dust in the groove is usually heard as noise and may be ground into the vinyl by the passing stylus, causing lasting damage. A warp can cause a regular "wow" or fluctuation of musical pitch, and if substantial it Album) make a record physically unplayable. A scuff will be heard as a swishing sound. A scratch will create an audible tick or pop once each revolution when the stylus encounters it.
A deep scratch can throw the stylus out of the groove; if it jumps to a place farther inward, part of the recording is skipped; if it jumps outward to a part of the groove it just finished playing, it can get stuck in an infinite loopplaying the same bit over and over until someone stops it. This last type of mishap, which in the era of brittle shellac records was more commonly caused by a crack, spawned the simile "like a broken record" to refer to annoying and seemingly endless repetition.
Records used in radio stations can suffer cue burnwhich results from disc jockeys placing the needle at the beginning of a track, turning the record back and forth to find the exact start of the music, then backing up about a quarter turn, so that when it is released the music will start immediately after the fraction of a second needed for the disc to come up to full speed.
When this is done repeatedly, the affected part of the groove is heavily worn and a hissing sound will be noticeable Album) the start of the track. The process of playing a vinyl record with a stylus is by its very nature to some degree a destructive process. Wear to either the stylus or the vinyl results in diminished sound quality. Record wear can be reduced to virtual insignificance, however, by the use of a high-quality, correctly adjusted turntable and tonearm, a high-compliance magnetic cartridge with a high-end stylus in good condition, and careful record handling, with non-abrasive removal of dust before playing and other cleaning if necessary.
The average tangential needle speed relative to the disc surface is approximately 1 mile per hour 1. It travels fastest on the outside edge, unlike audio CDs, which change their speed of rotation to provide constant linear velocity CLV. By contrast, CDs play from the inner radius Volts (3) - Plugged In (Vinyl, the reverse of phonograph records. The cutting stylus unavoidably transferred some of the subsequent groove wall's impulse signal into the previous groove wall.
It was discernible by some listeners throughout certain recordings but a quiet passage followed by a loud sound would allow anyone to hear a faint pre-echo of the loud sound occurring 1. Pre- and post-echo can be avoided by the use of direct metal mastering. The first LP records introduced used fixed pitch grooves just like their 78 predecessors. The use of magnetic tape for the production of the master recordings allowed the introduction of variable pitch grooves. The magnetic tape reproducer used to transfer the recording to the master disc was equipped with an auxiliary playback head positioned ahead of the main head by a distance equal to one revolution of the disc.
The sole purpose of this head was to monitor the amplitude of the recording. If the sound level from both the auxiliary and main magnetic heads was loud, the cutting head on the disc recording lathe was driven at its normal speed.
However, if the sound level from both magnetic heads was quieter, then the disc cutting head could be driven at a lower speed reducing the groove pitch with no danger of the adjacent grooves colliding with each other. The playing time of the disc was therefore increased by an amount dependent on the duration of quieter passages. The record manufacturers had also realised that by reducing the amplitude of the lower frequencies recorded in the groove, it was possible to decrease the spacing between the grooves and further increase the playing time.
These low frequencies were then restored to their original level on playback. Furthermore, if the amplitude of the high frequencies was artificially boosted on recording the disc and then subsequently reduced to their original level on playback, the noise introduced by the disc would be reduced by a similar amount.
This gave rise to an equalization frequency response applied during record coupled with an inverse of the response applied on playback. Each disc manufacturer applied their own version of an equalization curve mostly because each manufacturer's equalization curve was protected by interlocking patents. Low-end reproduction equipment applied a compromise playback equalization that reproduced most discs reasonably well.
However, amplifiers for audiophile equipment were equipped with an equalization selector with a position for most, if not all, disc manufacturers. The net effect of equalization is to allow longer playing time and lower background noise while maintaining full fidelity of music or other content.
A differently shaped, but similarly difficult-to-use metal adapter was made by Fidelitone. Capitol Records for a time produced what they called "Optional Center" or "O. These had a triangular section molded in with an LP-size spindle hole that could be punched out for playing on 45 rpm spindles.
Some EMI and other British records have a similar feature. The EMI version is circular, with four small notches holding the center part onto the rest of the record. Commissioned by RCA president David Sarnoff and invented by Thomas Hutchison, spiders were prevalent in the s and sold tens of millions per year. The Hutchison adapter included small bumps called "drive pins," which locked the adapters together while revolving, Volts (3) - Plugged In (Vinyl preventing the stacked records from slipping against each other.
Several manufacturers made "spider" adapters in slightly varying shapes and many different colors, though yellow and red were most frequently used. The original design The Extender was made up of a platter die-cut from sheets of plastic that McLaughlan would drive on the hood of his car from the supplier in Cambridge, MA to the die-cutter in Ipswich, MA. He would then do the final assembly bonding a lathe cut acrylic center and a foam pad and packaging by hand.
One of the main design revisions, required was a series of 'ribs' on the underside of the platter to prevent warping from the extreme changes in temperature during the manufacturing process. A raised barrier was also added to contain the head in the event of miscuing and a polished surface inside the barrier to minimize damage to the stylus. Blue Note — BLP . Blue Note — 5 2 3 . From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Miles Davis.
Retrieved April 17, All Music. Retrieved April 20, Tutu Amandla Doo-Bop Rubberband. Miles Dewey Davis Jr. Book Category. Years indicated are for the recording snot first release except for the film scores. Johnson at the Opera House J. Johnson J. Sonny Stitt, Joyride Stanley Turrentine
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